Comparison Shear Wall and Brick Wall

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20 May 2021 - 11:10, by , in Wall leakages, No comments

The advantage of using shear wall method of construction


1. Tidier and more workmanlike


The job site where PCG SYSTEMS were used was immeasurably tidier and more workmanlike than job sites where wood forms used. In a large job, such as yours, where several areas would be under construction at the same time, it was easy for you to visualize the mountains of wrecked form lumber that you would have lying about in various stages of abandonment, and you felt that it would be worth money to you to have the advantage of a clean and orderly job site.


2. Easy house keeping


PCG SYSTEMS requires a small area for erection at site. When it is being used, PCG SYSTEMS will be acting as one set and is located at the work area. It will be used until the end of the project without generating any residual materials. In short, the problem of housekeeping, safety and disposal of the residual materials can be eliminated.

Site maintaining cost reduced. Project consumes lesser wood, timber, sand, brick, mortar and rebar, so your rubbish cost reduces. The numbers of workers reduce, and the site problems will automatically reduce. Site has more areas for storage instead of using more areas to build a lot of worker quarters at site. Road and working access increase. You will have neat and clean site. Your safety cost reduces. Your labor productivity and construction quality will increase when you have a neat and clean as well as safety site.


3. Speed in erecting and dismantling forms

Wood will decay when there is too much moisture. That presents particularly when it is in contact with the ground. Meanwhile a carpenter uses a lot of nails to make the structural parts of wood built forms. Fasteners, including nails, are the weakest part of any construction joint. Meanwhile, the potential failures of wood formwork, it represents a great hazard to workers working around and on it. Unskilled workers always over secure the wood forms. Too many nails will weaken lumber, and increase difficulty of removing the forms, and reduce the usage of the plywood and timbers.

The money saved by using PCG SYSTEMS with full complete set of accessories may be worth the initial cost of timber forms. You need to change the wood form to PCG SYSTEMS in order to provide the contractor, sub contractor and workers the ability to speed up the project. It was positively fascinating to stand and watch a carpenter and workers put together a new section of PCG SYSTEMS. Obviously, when we use methods such as this, it will help us speed up our job.


4. Good appearance

Wood will decay when there is too much moisture. That presents particularly when it is in contact with the ground. Meanwhile a carpenter uses a lot of nails to make the structural parts of wood built forms. Fasteners, including nails, are the weakest part of any construction joint. Meanwhile, the potential failures of wood formwork, it represents a great hazard to workers working around and on it. Unskilled workers always over secure the wood forms. Too many nails will weaken lumber, and increase difficulty of removing the forms, and reduce the usage of the plywood and timbers.

The money saved by using PCG SYSTEMS with full complete set of accessories may be worth the initial cost of timber forms. You need to change the wood form to PCG SYSTEMS in order to provide the contractor, sub contractor and workers the ability to speed up the project. It was positively fascinating to stand and watch a carpenter and workers put together a new section of PCG SYSTEMS. Obviously, when we use methods such as this, it will help us speed up our job.


5. Greater control of accuracy and workmanship

With the durable, all steel PCG SYSTEMS, each successive home built are as high quality as the first. When you build a house using pre-engineering and PCG SYSTEMS, it offers greater control of accuracy and workmanship during construction. This result in a higher quality structure compared to the conventional method using a lot of timber formwork. The quality of timber formwork very much depends on the individual skills of workers of which made the quality of each home built different. With the shortage of available skill labors in today construction market, selecting the right forming equipment becomes even more important.


6. Bigger spacious

Brick wall thickness: 150mm<=X<= 230mm Concrete wall thickness: 100mm <=X<=200mm When the thickness of wall reduced, the purchasers have bigger space. Purchasers feel the built up area of a house used reinforce concrete wall design is really big.


7. No protruded columns and beam for high-rise


8. The straightness of RC wall

RC wall acts as a leveling point for carpenter to fabricate conventional riser and landing for the staircase. Hardly have any plaster hairline crack when RC wall joined with RC staircase.

RC wall is very straight versus conventional design.

Brick wall joined with RC staircase creates many plaster hairline crack.


9. Superb concrete finish, quality improvement

Have all the value and benefit of concrete. Quality is enhanced despite the speed of construction. The precise, even steel face of PCG SYSTEMS creates a smooth, high quality finish capable of receiving direct decoration with the minimum of preparation (a level of 1 to 10mm thick skim coat is required). This reduces the requirement for finishing trades, thus providing additional cost savings and speeding the entire process.

Lower finish cost, plastering convert to skim finish.

For example: 746 unit single story terrace houses, those walls built up by beams + columns + clay bricks are converted to a concrete wall.

178,248 m2 plastering work was eliminated but replaced by skim coating

4,051,101 pieces of brick quantity eliminated, when using concrete wall method of construction.


PCG forming 81022 m2, supply PCG wall 300m2, 8 forming workers, 270 pours = 270 days 4051101 pieces of bricks, per worker brick laying daily productivity = 500 piece/per day, 270 days, 30 workers. Brick laying man power reduced approximately 74%

60% of brick wall quantity reduces for 1-3 story landed terrace houses. Brick laying cost reduces. Brick wastage reduces. Site maintaining and coordination cost reduce. Road repairing lesser, saving for hard core/stone/sand/crane/labor/transport/staff overhead cost.

20-25mm thick plastering cost reduces. 1-10mm thick skim coating work is easier when comparison to 20mm to 25mm plastering work. Skim coating is cheaper than plastering. Skim finish is more beautiful than plastering. Our finishing cost reduces. Direct finishes and durable wall minimizes decoration, repair and refurbishment costs. Wallpaper can be directly applied or a skim coat may be used to provide a perfect finish.

Plastering cost is more expensive than skim coating, because the skill level of plastering is higher than skim coating due to uneven surface of brick laying, the quality of wooden formwork for beams and columns.

RC walls have Better wall finish…better view. Monolithic pour concrete is less dependency on skilled labors, etc masonry brick layers, carpenters, bar-benders and plasterers and so on.


10. Hardly has skim finish crack at ceiling level.

Concrete walls cast higher than normal ceiling level, for example, ceiling level of 3.1m but concrete pouring level of 3.2 m. 1-10mm thick skim coating versus 20-25 mm thick plastering internally.

At ceiling level, conventional method always have wall plaster hairline crack as a result of plaster shrinkage. PCG 6 7/3/2013


11. Lesser water seepage problem

Water seepage through external walls was found to be a common defect faced by homeowners. The survey findings also showed that the use of single layer brick wall is the most common cause of water seepage through external walls. Almost 90% of the water seepage occurred through cracks in the plastered brick walls. In general, water seepage through external walls occurred within the first five years of building completion.

Water seepage through the external walls is unacceptable to the occupants. The problem is further compounded by Malaysia’s high humidity and abundant rainfall throughout the year. High wind speeds experienced by high-rise buildings also increase the likelihood of water seepage. Building envelopes must, therefore, be adequately designed and constructed to prevent ingress of water. There are various external wall systems used in the local industry, including precast concrete walls, cast-in-situ reinforced concrete walls, brick walls, curtain walls, cladding walls, concrete block walls, etc.


12. Strong, solid, rigid, durable and low maintenance

One of the key benefits of building with concrete is that it is durable and easy to maintain. Concrete and cement based products form a solid, durable that resists rot, pests and wild fires.

Buying a home is typically the biggest investment we will ever make. If that home is constructed with concrete walls, our investment is naturally protected from the structural damage that can be caused by the effects of nature. As the owner of a concrete home, we will benefit from lowest annual maintenance and energy costs while living in a home that provides a secure haven for our family.

Concrete’s thermal mass coupled with correct insulation and boiler design minimizes heating costs and can even reduce air-conditioning requirements, with the resultant benefit for the environment. It is monolithic and accurate structure facilitates airtight construction and forms an integral wall that is solid, continuous and airtight. Homes built with concrete wall are more energy efficient and less expensive to operate. Ultimately we can save hundreds, even thousands of dollars during the life of the home. Why? Because concrete walls mean there is virtually no air infiltration, and the thermal mass the concrete wall and the outstanding insulating properties of the expanded polystyrene result in an airtight, easily controlled environment.

The final report of Highland Tower showed that most of the people who were killed when the building collapsed were due to brick wall detaching from the frame impacting on the other wall and generally initiating progressing collapsed other brick wall partition.

Shear wall method of construction is certainly better then column and beam method of construction. If bricks wall detaching from the frame impacting on the other wall and generally initiating progressing collapsed other brick wall.


13. Fire resistance

Fire can endanger the lives of everyone in the family and destroy those things that cannot be replaced. Insurance companies recognize concrete as being safer than any other method of construction when fire threatens a home. Living in a concrete home can ultimately bring peace of mind for homeowners concerned about fire.


14. Tornadoes, hurricanes resistance

When hurricanes howl, the greatest danger to people and property is flying debris. Researchers for the Wind Engineering Research Center at Texas Tech University said that concrete walls are strong enough to withstand flying debris from hurricanes and tornadoes. According to their findings, homes made of reinforced concrete wall are much more storm-resistant.

Reinforced concrete homes have proven their wind-resistance in the field during tornadoes and hurricanes. In Urbana, Illinois, a recently constructed concrete home withstood a 1996 tornado with minimal damage. In the Liberty City area of Miami, several concrete homes survived Hurricane Andrew in 1992. In both cases, neighboring homes were destroyed. House made of concrete and rebar, have proved especially strong, nearly impervious to tornadoes, hurricanes, and earthquakes.


15. Earthquake resistance

Earthquake is produced by sudden release of tremendous amount of energy within the earth by sudden movement of Earth’s various layers. Earthquake strikes suddenly, very fast and violently without any warning. It may harm badly designed and constructed buildings which may injure or kill its inhabitants.

Factors affecting building during earthquake

  • Poor quality building material, weak foundation or structure may be harmful during earthquake.
  • Old or leaning trees, electrical wires and power line close to the house or building are harmful and cause damage at the time of earthquake.
  • Irregular balconies and cantilever structure may be dangerous during earthquake.
  • Reservoirs, water tower and other weak or poorly constructed buildings adjoining to house or building can be harmful at the time of earthquake.
  • Nature of soil also has great effect on the safety of the building during earthquake. Poor deep loose sand, silt clay, gavel, soft and saturated granular soils are not able to resist the earthquake motion in the ground and lead to foundation damage.
  • Sandy soil can be easily affected by earthquake; it may make ground incapable of supporting foundation. The ground may crack or heave which may cause settlement of building. The building may even collapse due to this settlement problem.
  • Water saturated soil changes its behavior during earthquake and becomes slushy which may lead to the failure of foundation of the building.
  • Type of building structure whether beam and column frame, steel frame, wooden frame or load bearing masonry walls also affect the building structure during earthquake.
  • Irregular shaped and high buildings may be affected easily during earthquake.


However, if the structure has ductile behavior, it may increase the strength of building. The brick masonry structure is less resistant to earthquakes. Qualified engineer, good quality material and construction may minimize the damage during earthquake.

Buildings with cast-in-situ reinforced concrete shear walls are widespread in many earthquake- prone countries and regions, such as Canada, Chile, Romania, Turkey, etc. This type of construction has been practiced since the 1960s in urban regions for medium-to high-rise buildings. Several reports indicate its good behavior in past earthquakes. On March 3, 1985, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake hit the central zone of Chile where most of the reinforced concrete buildings were located. Reports indicated extremely good seismic performance of these buildings, with very minor damage or no damage at all. The shear wall building type is considered to be earthquake-resistant.


16. Termite, insect and rodent resistance

Concrete Is Good for the Environment, environmentally friendly + minimal debris…

Portland cement, which makes up about 10 percent of concrete, is manufactured from limestone, clay and sand, scrap tires and other combustible waste that would otherwise take valuable land in landfills are often used as a fuel source in the cement manufacturing process. Sources of aggregates are diverse and plentiful: sand, gravel, crushed stone and an ever-increasing array of consumer and industrial waste products-fly ash from coal burning electric power plants and blast furnace slag from steel mills.

Crushed concrete from demolition is often used as aggregate for concrete. Concrete’s nearly inert matrix of materials make it an ideal recycling medium, with absolutely no degradation of strength or performance. In addition, a solid wall structure that eliminates air infiltration and uncomfortable drafts means the air quality will be superior, free of all airborne pollen, molds, mildews, dust and allergens.

The increasing awareness generated by the ‘green’ movement throughout the world of the need for resource conversation, has stimulated the rise of ‘materials management’, ‘facilities plan’ and management ‘in organizations. The exploding interest in “green,” or environmentally friendly, building products and practices has accelerated the demand for sustainable home construction.

Green building involves designing and building a home—on the inside and out—to maximize performance and conserve resources. A green home consumes less energy, water and natural resources; creates less waste; and is healthier and more comfortable for the occupants—all qualities that are easily achieved by using concrete.

USING PCG SYSTEMS for concrete construction is a primary road to saving one of our most valuable natural resources, our forests. PCG SYSTEMS are also the roads to the savings of your financial resources, because lumber price jumps. Meanwhile, the world’s lumber shortagecontinues to deepen. In order to reduce your construction cost, there is a need to introduce a durable product, namely PCG SYSTEMS.

In today environmentally conscious society, we are under ever-increasing pressure to reduce waste and provide energy efficient buildings within sustainable communities and PCG SYSTEMS provides benefits in the following key areas: The in-situ casting of units on site and the local availability of ready-mixed concrete supplies reduce transportation impacts. Just-in-time deliveries and near zero wastage produce an overall tidier site with associated cost savings and safety benefits plus minimum disruption where the site is already partly occupied.

Shear wall method not only help to save our forests, but also save labor, material, time, interest, capital for construction, meanwhile it helps improve the quality of the houses and most important, improve your profit. It is required lesser coordination and supervising. Your coordination cost reduces.


18. Sound reducing

Land for home building is becoming scarce and homes are being built closer together and near noise sources like highways, railways and airports. Concrete homes have attractive sound-reducing qualities to provide the kind of quiet comfort buyers look for in a home. Basic Soundproofing Principles Only Three Things Stop Noise

1. Space. The more space there is, the more noise reduction there is. As an exaggeration, if you are 10 miles away, you will not hear it, except under strange circumstances.

2. Mass. A six foot thick concrete wall works great!! If it is heavy, it will work well. Remember, if it does not weigh much it will not stop much.

3. Dampening. This requires a little explanation. Like a wine glass, when you make it ring… but you can keep it quiet by holding it. You have dampened the noise by retarding the vibrations. This can be achieved in several ways. Making noise transfer through different layers of material with different densities also helps dampen noise.


Noise Reduction vs. Noise Absorption – Sound Proofing Principle

This is a very important principle to understand about soundproofing. There are two types of noise reduction and they are almost always confused with each other. All noise reduction and soundproofing is not alike. Noise absorption is not noise reduction.

Noise Reduction

Noise Reduction is achieved by stopping it, killing it, not letting the noise get through the wall or window. Stop the noise before it gets to you, or into the room you are in. For this, you use mass and space. You can build heavy walls with large air spaces and you maximize dampening as best you can.

Noise Absorption

Noise absorption is achieved by changing the characteristic of the noise. Stop it from echoing. Stop the reverberation. Stop the noise reflections.All this involves handling the noise that is within the room. It seldom involves noise from outside the room. You have likely heard of a room as being a “live” room or a “dead” room. For this type of noise reduction or soundproofing you will use carpets, upholstered furniture, acoustical ceiling tile, soundboard or interior walls.

What works for noise absorption does not ever work for noise reduction. Soundboard is useless at stopping noise. When put up with the sheetrock it is useless unless it is the outside layer and it is being used for noise absorption sound control.


19. Cost saving…

Purchasers and developers will reap the benefits of concrete construction, including good acoustic performance, excellent fire resistance, high thermal mass and low maintenance, all achieved within budget. Conventional structural design emphasizes rebar component with minimum concrete frame. This type of reinforce concrete structure emphasizes very heavy rebar design. Conventional design remains infilling with brick walls of which require a lot of skill workers for brick lying and plastering. That gives cost savings in material, time and money and eliminating waste etc Mortar, Timber form, Steel reinforcement, Bricks, Plastering, Sand, Cement…

The material rate like rebar, brick, timber, sand, mortar, cement and so on continue to climb, so, the construction cost of column and beam design is getting higher and higher. Therefore, it is important to continue to look for ways to improve your design. In order to achieve these objectives, there is a need to introduce new technologies to improve construction performance. Shear wall method of construction for residential houses.

Cost saving per house: Build up areas X cost saving per house of house

For example cost saving of build up area: 493, 660, 1000, 1318 foot squared.



The Top 8 Ways to Improve Safety and Productivity at site


1. Get involved early.

Developer wants to make every dollar count by cutting constructions cost while still providing top value. If we can reduce construction costs by only RM 100 per item, we will significantly increase our profits. There typically are about 100 items per house, creating RM 10000 of increased profit per house. Everyone wants the best deals they can get. People are a lot more sensitive to price. We don’t eliminate something very important to everyone. That could defeat the purpose of the whole project.

Developer tries to work with the team, including the general contractor, architect, engineer and others as early as he can that even more important than to do his research first in order to keep his projects as inexpensive as possible for the parts and pieces that he doesn’t see. Developer brings in the team that is working together to accomplish the developer’s budget. The interaction between these groups provides the developer with the information to decide if he is building the right product with the right amenities for his market.

The reality is that most product mixes have guys who are really good and attentive to that product mix. The developers need to do their research and try to understand who does affordable and high-rise. Picking a good contractor with market knowledge can help a developer avoid pitfalls and ultimately save money. The value of a general contractor is knowledge in a region. If the developer get a general contractor who doesn’t know a region, that could cost them money.

Contact formwork suppliers during the early design stage of the project. This allows for as much information as possible to be incorporated into the bid documents, which will provide a more accurate cost for the owner. Formwork suppliers can advise on sizing structural concrete members to meet standard form dimensions. Because major form suppliers typically are involved in a large number of projects in a wide variety of construction markets, they can draw upon their resources to suggest the right formwork system for a project. It also is important to ask concrete forming contractors to be involved early in the design stage of the structure. Because they ultimately build the structure, they can provide a tremendous amount of knowledge as to the most economical formwork means and methods.


2. Select the right formwork.

Formwork, the temporary moulds used to hold fresh concrete as it sets, are a crucial element in concrete construction. The selection of formwork greatly affects the schedule, labour requirements, quality, and total cost of a project. Because conditions vary at each jobsite, there is no simple formula for choosing the right system or supplier. The largest portion of cost comes from labour, so it is important to analyze labour costs thoroughly; reducing them will have a much greater impact on bottom line costs.


3. Know when to purchase and when to rent.

Another consideration is whether to purchase or rent a formwork system. This decision should be based on the duration of the project and the overall strategy of the company. Typically, if a form system is rented for more than 8 months, purchasing the system prove more economical. However, with the purchase of a system, additional costs can incur, such as maintenance and storage. Some formwork companies offer these services for customers who purchase their equipment. Formwork technology is changing constantly. The quality of the product also must be considered in the decision-making process.


4. Ensure proper access.

Proper access is an important component of formwork use at a worksite because it affects the schedule, budget, and safety. Workers must be able to get to the work area using safe horizontal- and vertical-access routes.


5. Make fall protection the top priority.

Falls are one of the top killers at construction sites every year, so fall protection is a major safety concern. For a construction worker, feeling safe is as important as actually being safe. It is important for productivity and peace of mind that workers have a feeling of security as they move above the formwork structure. Workers will perform their duties more productively if they are comfortable with the structure under their feet. If they are working on top of something that feels rickety, they don’t feel as confident, and that can result in a loss of productivity.

A worker needs a safe, easy way to climb from one area to the next. It is important to have proper ladders installed for easy, safe access on the formwork. On platforms where people will be working, install secure guardrails to protect workers from falls.

That is improving fall protection procedures on high-rise structures is protection screens, which fully enclose a building’s slab edge, providing a contained, safe, and more productive working environment. These systems anchor to a slab edge around the perimeter of the building and are used on the upper floors of high-rise buildings as they are erected, providing protection from wind, weather, and the fear of falling. Other safety precaution ideas include good guardrails and toe boards.


6. Ensure accurate handling and proper assembly.

One of the common mistakes that contractors make at a jobsite is not following the engineering drawings for assembling and setting up formwork. Not following setup instructions can lead to accidents and trying to save time could result in unsafe working conditions and unnecessary downtime. When setting up and dismantling a formwork structure, follow instructions carefully to ensure safety. Properly installed ties will hold the formwork firmly in place while the concrete is poured.


7. Don’t overlook proper formwork ties.

It is necessary to have the proper ties in place to secure the formwork. Having the proper ties in place and not exceeding the maximum pour pressure as per the design not only guarantees safety, but also ensures that the work is done correctly. For example, if you pour the concrete in too fast and the ties are not strong enough, it creates excess pressure on the forms. The ties can fail and the formwork can move, creating an unsafe condition and work that must be redone.


8. Safety first.

Every worker at a construction site knows about safe practices. Contractors learn safe practices during their apprenticeships, and several trade organizations promote the safe and proper use of forming and shoring equipment. Safety is never a simple matter, but if safety equipment features are easy to use then workers will be more likely to use them.

The purpose of safe practices is so that all workers have a common level of knowledge and they will all do things the same safe way. If everyone at a construction site follows the same set of safety rules, then a worker on one side of a formwork structure can be confident that a worker on the other side is doing the same thing. For a contractor, enforcing safety at a worksite is the most crucial aspect of getting a job done. With everyone following safe practices, not only will there be fewer accidents (or no accidents at all) but also benefits in increased productivity and efficiency.

Site safety increases. The repetitive, predictable nature of the tasks involved encourages familiarity with operation, and once training is complete, productivity improves as construction progresses. The minimal requirement for tools and equipment when moving PCG SYSTEMS further reduces the risk of accidents on site. Workers Safety Factor Increased. Group insurance reduces. Labor productivity increases for all type of trades due to clean and neat site. Comprehensive method statements from PCG Systems and a full safety risk assessment enhance safety in PCG Systems’application. PCG Systems meet all the current Health & Safety construction site requirements.


History of concrete shear wall/ reinforced concrete wall construction

In the early of 1980’s, load bearing shear wall construction has been introduced in replacement of traditional column-beam frame design for the construction of low to medium low cost apartments in Malaysia. Its building process can be completed more efficiently, economically and faster for everyone concerned. The higher grade of concrete further enhances the safety factor. During construction, the vertically settlement of the building is continually monitored to ensure and confirm to the requirement. Shear wall buildings are usually regular in plan and in elevation. However, in some buildings, lower floors are used for commercial purposes and the buildings are characterized with larger plan dimensions at those floors.

Before year of 1997, concrete homes made up just lesser than 1% of construction market in Johor Bahru. Today, their popularity is exploding, making up most of new apartment homes that are built. Viewing from the outside of home, a concrete home looks like any other home. Drive up to a new home today and you probably cannot tell how that home was constructed. That is because the “skim” covering a home.

We are using high-rise technology to build landed properties that give our landed property design more efficiency, rigidity, durability, strength, safety and quality, that further enhances the safety factor and the quality of structure. In addition, the superior fire resistance and strength inherent in concrete structures increase confidence in the building itself.

The PCG SYSTEMS design exploits these principles to provide cost-effective, high quality construction, generating significant savings in time and costs over conventional methods. The building process can be completed efficiently, efficiency, economically and faster with benefits for everyone concerned. The surfaces of high quality of reinforced concrete wall structure required only minimal finishing, very minimal or low wastage, modular construction that reduce defect. Structural features of concrete shear wall

The lateral and gravity load-resisting systems consist of reinforced concrete walls and reinforced concrete slabs. Shear walls are the main vertical structural elements with a dual role of resisting both the gravity and lateral loads. Wall thickness varies that depends on the number of stories, building age and thermal insulation requirements. In general, these walls are continuous throughout the building height; however, some walls are discontinued at the basement level to allow for commercial or parking spaces. Usually the wall layout is symmetrical with respect to at least one axis of symmetry in the plan. Floor slabs are either cast-in-situ flat slabs, or less often, precast slabs. Buildings are supported by concrete strip or mat foundations; the latter type is common for buildings with basements. Structural modifications are not very common in this type of construction.


Design factors

The high levels of dimensional accuracy achieved with PCG SYSTEMS and the superior load distribution result in a strong, solid monolithic structure suitable for a multitude of uses. Building is lighter. It has lesser rebar component. The number of piles reduces. It has cost saving for foundation work if ground floor has a unit. When transfer beam level is not required, foundation of shear wall can be strip foundation thus making use of the cost efficiency of the pile group strength in the strip foundation.V

alue engineering starts with the early involvement of the PCG SYSTEMS. Not only does system form often reduce the cost of the frame by over 15%, its application provides construction efficiencies resulting in an average savings of 25% in the time taken to complete the frame. The resulting monolithic construction can also produce savings in the foundations.

  • Foundation of the building should be constructed on the hard strata soil by using earthquake safety measures as directed by design Engineer. Soil test must be performed before designing the foundation of the building.
  • Minimum depth of foundation should be one meter.
  • Deep and unbroken rock foundation of good quality and stiff soil are best for foundation as it allows less transfer of vibrations to the building.
  • Foundation of building should be re-enforced by using M.S bars and cement concrete mix not less than the ratio of 1:1.5:3
  • The shape of building should be square or compact rectangular.
  • Building should be closed shape, it is preferred to construct in U or L shape building.
  • The parts of the building should be tied together firmly and braced at corners stiffly in such a way that the whole structure tends to move as single unit. In RCC frame structure building, tie beams are provided for such purpose.
  • Keep minimum balconies and cantilevers during construction of building.
  • Parapets, cornices, cantilevers and projections should be re-enforced and attached to the main structure firmly.
  • Keep minimum height of parapet and other unsupported walls.
  • The structure should be made as light as possible because the force of earthquake is a function of the mass.
  • Particularly the roof and upper stories of building should be designed as light as possible.
  • Keep minimum height as far as possible in multi-story building.



According to the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI), “formwork and its associated labor is the largest single cost segment of the concrete structural frame-generally more than 50%.”

  • maintaining constant depth of horizontal construction
  • maintaining constant spacing of beams and joists
  • maintaining constant column dimensions from floor to floor
  • maintaining constant story heights
  • maintaining wall thickness:


Wall thickness must be evaluated when designing shear wall thickness.

Reasons to maintain constant wall thickness include repetitive use of standard PCG panels. This minimizes the possibilities of error in the field. Maintain sufficient wall thickness to permit proper placing and vibrating of concrete.

Wall openings should be kept to a minimum number since they can be costly and time consuming. A few larger openings are more cost-effective than many smaller openings. Size and location should be constant for maximum reuse of formwork


Standard Forms

Since most projects do not have the budget to accommodate custom forms, basing the design on readily available standard PCG panel sizes is essential to achieve economical formwork. Designing for actual dimensions of standard PCG panel will significantly cut costs. A simplified approach to formwork carpentry means less sawing, less piecing together, less waste and less time. This results in reduced labour and material costs and fewer opportunities for error by construction workers.



The sizes and shapes of the concrete members should be repeated in the structure. By doing this, PCG SYSTEMS can be reused from bay to bay and from floor to floor, resulting in maximum overall savings. The relationship between cost and changes in depth of horizontal construction is a major design consideration. By standardizing the size, the forms can be reused for all floors and most requirements can be met at a lowered cost. To accommodate load and span variations, only the amount of reinforcement needs to be adjusted. Experience has shown that changing the depth of the of the concrete joist systems from floor to floor because of differences in superimposed loads actually results in higher costs. Selecting different joist depths and beam sizes for each floor may result in minor savings in materials, but specifying the same depth for all floors will achieve major savings in forming costs.


Designing repeated structures:

The standard formwork materials and shapes can be reused to the maximum extend. That minimizes the amount of formwork need-fabricated or pre-engineered. The choice between wood and steel form depends on how much the forms will be reused. Know the type, shape of formwork available from PCG SYSTEMS as well as that can be built at the job site by most of the contractors.



An important principle in formwork design is simplicity. There are countless variables that must be evaluated, and then integrated into the design of a building. Traditionally, economy has meant a time-consuming search for ways to cut back on quantity of materials. This approach often creates additional costs.


All steel made window blank out

Aluminum frame does not cast together with PCG WALL SYSTEMS

PCG WALL SYSTEMS tailor made steel blank-outs as tools for contractor.

In order to well hang the window, door blank out on PCG steel face sheet, it required pre-wielding some holes on the surface of PCG steel face sheet and the steel form installer must insert special tie rod through.


Window frame:

etc. aluminium window dimension is 600 mm width x 1550mm height

PCG blank out / structural opening dimension:

• 650 mm width x 1600mm height

• 660 mm width x 1600mm height

Gap is infilled with cement mortar.



All steel made door blank out

Door frame does not cast together with PCG WALL SYSTEMS.


Door frame never cast together with PCG WALL SYSTEMS

Why you need a big structure opening:

1. Filling cements mortar into steel frame make steel door frame solid.

2. Due to the defect of door frame suppliers.

3. You are unable to guarantee the quality of your door frame.


Door frame never cast together with PCG WALL SYSTEMS

Why you need a big structure opening:

1. Filling cements mortar into steel frame make steel door frame solid.

2. Due to the defect of door frame suppliers.

3. You are unable to guarantee the quality of your door frame.

When your actual doorframe is too small, you may adjust it with some additional timber plank. Carpenter only need to well secure some additional timber plank to reinforced concrete wall before installation the actual steel door frame.


The advantages of RC door :

1. Saving lintels in various ranges of sizes to cover the openings for doors and windows,

2. The straightness of opening,

3. Solid, rigid, durable, stronger.


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